关键字:
国际区域性疾病

    字体: | |

什么是检疫和隔离?
原作者: Jon Mark Hirshon;郑辛甜 发布日期:2015-01-05

Title: What is Quarantine and Isolation?
题目:什么是检疫和隔离?
Author 作者: Jon Mark Hirshon
翻译:郑辛甜 校对:肖锋


With all the current concern about Ebola, it is important to understand what are quarantine and isolation and who can order these.
鉴于目前受到广泛关注的埃博拉(Ebola)疫情,我们需要了解什么是检疫和隔离以及谁能提出这些要求。

Per the Centers for Disease Control:
根据疾控中心:
•Quarantine: separates and restricts the movement of people who were exposed to a contagious disease to see if they become sick.
•检疫是指将暴露于某一传染病的人群进行隔离限制其出行以观察他们是否罹患该病。
•Isolation: separates sick people with a contagious disease from people who are not sick.
•隔离是指将患有某一传染病的人群与未患病的人群隔开。

Federal Law allows for quarantine and isolation:
联邦法律允许检疫和隔离:
•From the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution
•根据美国宪法贸易条款
•Delegated to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services
•卫生与公众服务部部长授权于疾病控制中心(CDC)
•The CDC is “authorized to detain, medically examine, and release persons arriving into the United States and traveling between states who are suspected of carrying these communicable diseases.”
•CDC“有权扣留,医学检查,或释放进入美国及在各州间旅行的疑似携带传染性疾病的人员。”
•The CDC may issue a federal isolation or quarantine order
•CDC可以提出隔离或检疫联邦法令。
•Last large scale use was during the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919
•上一次大规模实施是1918-1919年的流感大流行。
•Breaking of a federal quarantine order is punishable by fines and imprisonment
•破坏检疫联邦法令将被处以罚款和监禁。

•State laws allows for the enforcement of isolation and quarantine within their borders.
•州法允许隔离和检疫在其境内执行。

Bottom Line 要点:
•There have been no large-scale quarantine or isolation orders for 100 years.  However, the CDC can issue an order that has the authority of the Constitution and federal law for enforcement.
•近100年来没有大规模的隔离和检疫法令实施。然而CDC可以发出具有宪法和联邦法律权威的强制执行令。

References 参考文献:
http://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/aboutlawsregulationsquarantineisolation.html