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溺水
原作者: Brian Corwell,翻译:李辉 文章来源: 《中华急诊医学杂志》编辑部 发布日期:2014-07-29

 Title: Drowning
题目:溺水
Author 作者: Brian Corwell
翻译:李辉 校正:肖锋

Happy Memorial Day! With all the recent attention in the news about swimming and drowning I thought I would share this article
纪念日快乐!最近所有的注意力都集中于游泳溺水的新闻,我想我愿意分享这篇文章。
The Instinctive Drowning Response—so named by Francesco A. Pia, Ph.D., is what people do to avoid actual or perceived suffocation in the water.
溺水的本能反应—由Francesco A. Pia博士命名,即人们在水中如何避免实际或感觉到的窒息。
And it does not look like most people expect.
这和多数人的认知是不一样的。
There is very little splashing, no waving, and no yelling or calls for help of any kind.
很少有水花飞溅、没有波浪、没有叫喊,也没有任何形式的呼救。
To get an idea of just how quiet and undramatic from the surface drowning can be, consider this:
为了了解溺水是多么的安静和平淡无奇,思考一下:
It is the No. 2 cause of accidental death in children, ages 15 and under (just behind vehicle accidents)—of the approximately 750 children who will drown next year, about 375 of them will do so within 25 yards of a parent or other adult.
它是15岁以下儿童意外死亡的第二个因素(仅次于交通事故),约750位儿童下一年会发生溺水,其中约375个会在距离父母或其他成年人25码的地方。
In some of those drownings, the adult will actually watch the child do it, having no idea it is happening.
一些溺水中,成年人事实上会目睹小孩溺水,但却不知道发生了溺水。
Drowning does not look like drowning—Dr. Pia, in an article in the Coast Guard’s On Scene magazine, described the Instinctive Drowning Response like this:
Pia博士在“海岸警卫队现场”杂志 “溺水看起来不像溺水”一文中对溺水的本能反应是这样描述的:
• “Except in rare circumstances, drowning people are physiologically unable to call out for help. The respiratory system was designed for breathing. Speech is the secondary or overlaid function. Breathing must be fulfilled before speech occurs.
• 除非在罕见的情况下,溺水者在生理学上是不能呼救的。呼吸系统原本是用于呼吸。讲话只是次级或叠加的功能。在说话之前必须有呼吸。
• Drowning people’s mouths alternately sink below and reappear above the surface of the water. The mouths of drowning people are not above the surface of the water long enough for them to exhale, inhale, and call out for help. When the drowning people’s mouths are above the surface, they exhale and inhale quickly as their mouths start to sink below the surface of the water.
• 溺水时人的嘴交替地沉没于水下或再出现于水面上。溺水者的嘴浮出水面的时间不足以呼气、吸气,以及呼救。溺水者的嘴高于水面时,他们迅速地呼气和吸气,因为他们的嘴已开始沉下水面。
• Drowning people cannot wave for help. Nature instinctively forces them to extend their arms laterally and press down on the water’s surface. Pressing down on the surface of the water permits drowning people to leverage their bodies so they can lift their mouths out of the water to breathe.
• 溺水的人不能挥手呼救。自然本能的力量强迫他们向两侧伸开手臂打压水面。打压水面可以使身体上浮,所以他们能使嘴高于水面呼吸。
• Throughout the Instinctive Drowning Response, drowning people cannot voluntarily control their arm movements. Physiologically, drowning people who are struggling on the surface of the water cannot stop drowning and perform voluntary movements such as waving for help, moving toward a rescuer, or reaching out for a piece of rescue equipment.
• 溺水本能反应的全过程中,溺水者不能自主地控制手臂的运动。生理学上,溺水者在水面上挣扎时不能停止溺水以及执行随意的运动如振臂呼救、向救援者移动、伸手去够一块急救设施等。
• From beginning to end of the Instinctive Drowning Response people’s bodies remain upright in the water, with no evidence of a supporting kick. Unless rescued by a trained lifeguard, these drowning people can only struggle on the surface of the water from 20 to 60 seconds before submersion occurs.”
• 从头到尾,溺水者的本能反应都是身体垂直于水面,无任何迹象表明需要急救。除非是被训练有素的急救员救起,溺水者在淹没之前通常只能在水面上挣扎20-60秒。
This doesn’t mean that a person that is yelling for help and thrashing isn’t in real trouble—they are experiencing aquatic distress. Not always present before the Instinctive Drowning Response, aquatic distress doesn’t last long—but unlike true drowning, these victims can still assist in their own rescue. They can grab lifelines, throw rings, etc.
这并不是说呼救和扑打的人不是处于真正的危险——他们正处于水上耗竭。水上耗竭并不是会经常出现在溺水本能反应之前,水上耗竭持续时间不长——但不像真正的溺水,这些受害者依旧能进行自身救援。他们能抓住救生索以及吊环等。
Look for these other signs of drowning when persons are in the water:
看一下其他人们水中溺水时的征象:
• Head low in the water, mouth at water level
• 头低于水面,口在水面上
• Head tilted back with mouth open
• 头后仰嘴巴张开
• Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus
• 眼睛呆滞,空旷,不能聚焦
• Eyes closed
• 眼睛合上
• Hair over forehead or eyes
• 头发盖住前额或眼睛
• Not using legs—vertical
• 不使用腿——呈直立状
• Hyperventilating or gasping
• 呼吸急促或喘气
• Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making headway
• 试图朝某个方向游但却无前进
• Trying to roll over on the back
• 试图翻转身体
• Appear to be climbing an invisible ladder
• 仿佛在爬一个看不见的楼梯
So if a crew member falls overboard and everything looks OK—don’t be too sure.
因此如果一个船员落水而一切看起来正常——不要如此肯定
Sometimes the most common indication that someone is drowning is that they don’t look like they’re drowning.
有时有人落水最常见的征象就是他们看起来不像溺水
They may just look like they are treading water and looking up at the deck.
他们看起来可能就像是在踩水和看着甲板。
One way to be sure?
弄明白的一个方法?
Ask them, “Are you all right?” If they can answer at all—they probably are.
问他们:“你还好吗?”如果完全能够回答——他们可能是没有问题。
If they return a blank stare, you may have less than 30 seconds to get to them.
如果他们表现出一片茫然,你可能有不超过30秒的时间去营救他们。
And parents—children playing in the water make noise. When they get quiet, you get to them and find out why.
对于父母亲——小孩在水中玩耍会制造噪音。当他们变得安静时,你就需要找到他们并找出原因。

References 参考文献:
http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/family/2013/06/rescuing_drowning_children_how_to_know_when_someone_is_in_trouble_in_the.html

文章来源:《中华急诊医学杂志》编辑部